gives an overview of the historical development of the game of golf over
the centuries to today.
1400: THE ORIGINS OF THE GAME
recorded history, every civilisation has played a game with a club and
a ball. Pangea for example, as described by Roman scribes, would appear
to be the father both of modern hockey and the Celtic games of Shinty
In one form
or another, the variant games of present day golf were clearly enjoyed
throughout Europe in the Middle Ages. The game persisted over the centuries
and the form that it took and rules that were applied varied as widely
as the terrain the game was played over. In short, the game consisted
of knocking a ball from one pre-designated place to another where the
ball was to be struck off a predetermined object in the least number of
blows. Games often extended from village to village.
game was ousted from the towns and onto the commons land beyond is one
possible solution to the question of how it all began. Whatever the exact
origins, it is known that by the 15th century, "kolf" as it was known
in the Netherlands and "goff" as it was referred to in England, was a
pastime enjoyed by Kings and Commoners alike. It's kinship to the Great
Game however, remains entirely questionable.
was the game of "Gowf", as it was known in Scotland, that an Act of Parliament
was passed to prevent the playing of the game on Sundays and thus preserve
the skills of Archery. The citizens of Aberdeen, St. Andrews and Leith
on Scotland's East Coast were the principal "gowfing" miscreants and it
was no coincidence that rolling sandy links land was commonplace here.
On this very terrain, a game that started with a cleek and a ball took
on a form that started an evolutionary process that continues to this
of how it all began may be of pressing concern to some but to the Scot,
it is sufficient to know that the game was born on the links land of eastern
Scotland. Here, the game has been nurtured for over five hundred years
and from here, it has been raised to the great game played and loved by
millions throughout the world.
- 1850 : THE ROBERTSONS OF ST ANDREWS
the period when golf as we know it today came to be. It was in this time
that many of today's great golf clubs were founded and the leading players
of the era started to gain renown. The great club-makers and ball-makers
of the era began to emerge and the clubs produced by these skilled craftsmen
were coveted to the extent that forgeries became commonplace.
began to regularly gather for 'meetings' when medal and match-play rounds
were organised, with distinctions made for the first time between amateur
and professional players. Allan Robertson, of the famous ball-making family
in St Andrews, is widely credited as being the first golf professional.
But before Allan, his Grandfather Peter was described as a professional
golfer and although history knows little of this man, his reputation survived
him and his prowess was widely acknowledged. One epic contest in 1843
was between Allan Robertson and Willie Dunn, two of the best players of
that time. The challenge was held over 20 rounds (2 rounds per day over
10 days) and it was Robertson who triumphed - two rounds up with one to
dynasty in itself reflects the emergence of the great game. The family
can be traced back to one Thomas Buddo, a ball-maker in St Andrews in
1610. His daughter married a Robertson and from this pair was bred the
stock that led to Allan himself and along the line produced generations
of ball-makers. At least four separate Robertson families employing over
25 hands were engaged in making balls in St Andrews during the mid 18th
Century. Allan by the way, who died in 1859, became the first man to break
80 on what is now the Old Course in 1853.
- 1890 : THE MORRIS AND PARK ERA
as we know it had its birth in the dim and distant past of the 17th century
and its upbringing under the Robertson family on the links of St Andrews,
then its adolescence occurred abruptly between 1848 and 1852. Three highly
significant events occurred in St Andrews that were to turn the game from
the parochial into the global. The first of these events was the discovery
of the "gutta percha" based ball, known as the "gutty" by James Patterson
in 1848. More importantly, the durability of this new ball in turn encouraged
the development of iron-faced clubs and so continued the process of evolution.
Then in 1852
the railway came to St Andrews and with it the progenitors of the millions
who have made the pilgrimage since. Now the links was played by all and
sundry throughout the year and not simply restricted to the busy spring
and autumn meetings. The R&A erected it's now famous clubhouse in consequence
of the railway, scores of ex-pat colonialists retired to the town and
families took up residence so that their sons could attend the University,
which was gradually assuming a stature comparable with Oxford and Cambridge.
If the 'gutty' transformed the game, the railway certainly transformed
the town of St Andrews.
third event of this period, which comes in two parts, is surely one of
the most important events in the long history of the game. Every individual
who has made a living out of hitting a golf ball should hold April 20th
1851 as the nativity for that was the birth date of Young Tom Morris,
one of the game's greatest early exponents. Similarly, every green-keeper,
designer or administrator should express some word of gratitude on the
1st of July for it was on that day in 1851 that Old Tom Morris left for
Prestwick to create the first purpose built golf course on the links of
It was in
1860 that the first Open Championship was held at Prestwick and was contested
by eight leading professionals. The first winner was Willie Park for which
he received a red Morocco leather belt with silver clasps as the first
prize. The Open continued to be held at Prestwick for 11 years and the
Morris's dominated the early events. Old Tom had won the event four times
by 1867 and Young Tom subsequently completed a quartet of wins, after
which he was allowed to keep the Belt.
Morris was raised on the links of Prestwick Golf Club and it was there
that he honed a game that was as revolutionary as the new iron clubs that
he had purpose made by Stewart in St Andrews. Irons that were previously
resorted to for a bad lie were now used for driving, lofting, jiggering
Morris also knew his worth and he demanded and obtained a good living
from the flair that he brought to the game. In this sense he was the first
true modern professional golfer. There may well have been greater players
since Young Tom but if there has been, few have left a greater legacy
to the game.
accrued an incredible record, with Old Tom winning the Open in 1861, '62,
'64 and '67, while Young Tom won in 1868, '69, '70 and 72. Across the
Firth of Forth in Musselburgh another family came close to matching them
when Willie Park Sr. and Jr. won the Open six times between them. Willie
Sr. won the first Open in 1860 and again in '63, '66, '67 and '75. His
brother Mungo Park won in 1874, while Willie Jr. won in '87 and '89. Old
Tom and Willie Sr. won all but one Open (1865) prior to the emergence
of Young Tom. Both were much-loved figures and were responsible for the
standards of sportsmanship with which the game is synonymous today.
- 1914: THE GREAT TRIUMVIRATE
era will always be remembered for the mark left on the game of golf by
John Henry Taylor, Harry Vardon and James Braid. Known as the great triumvirate,
they collected sixteen Open Championships between them and have left an
indelible impression on the game of golf.
hailed from the Channel Island of Jersey and Henry Taylor from Devon in
England. The emergence of Vardon and Taylor before the end of the 19th
century attests to the rapid spread and widespread play of the game. Both
had already established themselves as Open Champions before they were
joined by James Braid. The three between them collected 16 Open titles
and 13 second-place finishes and almost completely excluded a host of
great Scots players from the records of the game during that particular
period of time.
Taylor won the first of his five Open titles in 1894 at St George's in
England, now Royal St George's, while Harry Vardon pipped Taylor in a
play off in 1896 to land the first of a record six titles. James Braid
won his first of five Open Championships in 1901 to join Vardon and Taylor
as the dominant forces of the day. Though also winning the French Open,
unlike Vardon and Taylor, Braid never made the transatlantic crossing
to enjoy the spoils of the newly emerged golfing scene in the USA.
won the US Open of 1900 during a tour of America where he played in approximately
80 matches and winning 70 of them, Braid's decision to remain at home
was well rewarded as an exhibition match player. Braid also established
himself in course design, building Gleneagles and Nairn to name but two
of his many jewels.
as a trickle of Scots golfers to the US, became commonplace by the turn
of the century when anyone who could swing a club on a Scots links was
able to find a lucrative niche as a professional in the US. The early
US Open Champions were all Scots born players who, as teachers and mentors
produced players that would come to further transform the game. One notable
such player was Willie Anderson from North Berwick in Scotland, who won
the US Open four times including a present day record of three in a row
from 1903 to 1905.
- 1939 : BETWEEN THE GREAT WARS
World War decimated Scottish golf. Every village war memorial attests
to the numbers who fell in France and few clubs are without a memorial
to some rising star, who played out his last match on the fields of Flanders.
Some great players survived but the consequence of terror gutted their
game. Those that came through unscathed were few in number, determined
never to see the like again and often took the decision to play in America
- golf's promised land.
one notable exception in the mercurial George Duncan. Born near Aberdeen,
George served his time as a carpenter before rejecting his trade and the
offer of professional football with Aberdeen FC to become the professional
at Stonehaven, before moving to the lucrative South and acclaim. He won
the first post-war Open at Deal in 1920 when Sandy Herd at the age of
51 was runner-up. Duncan also played in the Ryder Cups of '27 and '29,
captaining the side in 1931. Scottish golfers were sorely tried by the
wave of first generation Americans that returned to assault the Championships
after the War. These players transformed the game, bringing a flair and
lifestyle that induced some disquiet in the home based players.
in America did not suit all tastes, with the Dunne's and Willie Park Jr.
among those who went and returned, there were many more who did not make
the return journey. Alistair Mackenzie and Donald Ross from Dornoch were
just two who left an indelible mark on America as course architects. The
Smiths from Carnoustie, Ben Sayers from North Berwick, Tommy Armour from
Edinburgh, the Simpsons from Elie and many others from St Andrews all
left lasting impressions in the States and left Scotland bereft of its
best and dearest.
was the last St Andrews born player to win the Open, while Paul Lawrie
was the last native Scot when he won at Carnoustie in 1999. After Jock's
win, the Open was dominated by the American, Walter Hagen who won the
first of his four Open titles in 1922 at St George's and followed up with
victories in '24, '28 and '29. Together with his compatriots Jim Barnes
(1925), Gene Sarazen (1932) and the incomparable Bobby Jones who won in
1926 and '27, this was an unprecedented period of Open Championship domination
by US players.
year 1922 saw 20 years old Gene Sarazen burst onto the scene in dramatic
fashion, landing both the US Open and US PGA Championship, retaining the
latter the following year after a play off with Walter Hagen. Hagen bounced
right back after this setback and won the next four PGA Championships
from 1924 to 1927. 1923 witnessed the mercurial talent of Bobby Jones
winning the first of his four US Open titles and Jones followed this with
victory in the Open at Royal Lytham in 1926, retaining it at St Andrews
in 1927. The Ryder Cup was held for the first time in 1927, when the United
States, captained by Walter Hagen, took on and comprehensively defeated
their counterparts from Great Britain & Ireland.
- 1960 : THE EMERGENCE OF THE WORLD GAME
If the First
World War decimated Scottish golf, the second came close to gutting it
completely. The First War took the players - the Second War took the golf
links lands border long sandy beaches, usually in remote places of low
population density. As a result, it did not take a brilliant military
mind to reason that the links beaches would make for ideal disembarkation
sites and the courses equally perfect places for airborne landings. The
huge concrete blocks that were erected to stop the movement of tanks from
the beaches can still be seen today. The hallowed fairways of the Old
Course were staked with massive wooden poles to prevent aircraft landings
and Turnberry made the ultimate sacrifice when it was turned into a runway.
Few courses remained unscathed - golf was not only suspended for the duration
of the War, it was very nearly extinguished.
US golf became
pre-eminent and though the Americans may not have been entirely responsible
for winning the war, they did win the battle of post-war golf. One could
argue that not having experienced the social and economic upheaval of
Europe or the long interruption of play, they were infinitely better prepared
for the resumption of golfing hostilities. Equally, the sheer numbers
that were now playing golf in the US made pre-eminence statistically inevitable.
Whatever the reason however, American golfers certainly came to the fore,
following the War years.
US domination of the Open Championship itself however, did not occur after
the war as it had in the pre-war era of Hagan and Jones. Sceptics argue
that the Americans did not play because doing so would have resulted in
loss of earnings at home but history tells a different story. Though Sam
Snead won the first post-war Open at St Andrews in 1946 and Ben Hogan
was victorious in his only visit to Carnoustie in 1953; every other major
figure in US golf had come and gone with notably less success. English
players were dominant in the immediate post-war years, with Cotton, Burton,
Faulkner and Daly (Irish) all winning.
was the Colonials however, who were to do the real damage as far as the
Open was concerned. Bobby Locke from the Transvaal, a first generation
South African Irishman and Peter Thomson, an Australian of solid Scots
stock were about to take the golfing world by storm. These two overwhelmed
golf in a period of a few years when Locke won in 1947 and '51 and Thomson
in '54, '55, '56, '58 and again in '65. Indeed, Thomson never finished
worse than second from 1952 to 1958. Their achievements, although less
impressive in the US, were nevertheless significant. Thomson beat Hogan
on his home turf to take the Texas Open, while Locke was the leading money
winner on the US tour. Both these players found their spiritual home on
the Scottish links where their best golf was played. Locke was a near
resident visitor throughout his life and Thomson now has his home in St
Andrews, only a wedge away from the R&A.
- TODAY: THE TRULY GLOBAL GAME OF GOLF
books do not lie and Scottish Golf, though healthy at home, was faring
ill abroad. The game had become truly global with players from Taiwan
and Japan threatening for major honours. The Swedes were gathering amateur
honours throughout Europe and there seemed no end to the talent emerging
Golf had come into maturity with a vengeance in the form of Arnold Palmer.
Palmer played the game as it should be played - with verve and a swashbuckling
style. Palmer was of course idolised in his own country but he found real
appreciation in the discerning crowds that lined the links fairways of
the Open Championship. Together with Tip Anderson, his St Andrews caddie,
Palmer was lord of every links he surveyed.
absence in 1964, Tip Anderson carried the bag of Tony Lema through the
most testing gales on the Old Course. It was Lema's win more than any
other event that put paid to the excuse that the game had changed and
that the new form of golf required only an accurate lofted shot to a soft
pulpy green - a shot at which the Americans were clearly adept. The leader
board of the '64 Open showed that Jack Nicklaus and plenty more US stars
could play the chip-and-run under the wind as well as any that had gone
before and as well as any of the home bred players.
for the Scottish golfing hiatus during this period may be simply statistical,
as the game had grown to the extent that the numbers now playing in every
developed country dwarfed the numbers playing in Scotland. There is no
doubt that the game itself had changed with the new courses that were
being built throughout the world. American architects led by Robert Trent
Jones were building courses that were both long and difficult. Greens
were soft and holding in contrast to the hard running greens of the links.
The grassy fairways presented another type of problem as the ball sat
up on the lush grasses and required club contact quite different to that
on the tight lies of the links. Possibly of greater significance was the
early adoption in the US of the 'big ball' - the 1.66-inch ball that required
a different strike and made for greater control.
of the game poured out of the US and the US Tour was becoming a multi-million
dollar industry with even mediocre golfers, grossing millions of dollars
not only through tournament play but also through commercial endorsements.
Tip Anderson was still caddying at home in St Andrews when he attained
celebrity status in the US without ever setting foot outside the British
Isles, backing Palmer in a beer commercial. Television coverage ensured
star-status for many players and the American College System, to their
credit, acted as a virtual conveyor belt of talent.
the foundation of the European Tour and the opening of the Ryder Cup to
European players, sponsorship grew and European golf blossomed into a
money market comparable to that of the US tour. One final ingredient was
required however - a star with the charisma of a Palmer and the appeal
of a Nicklaus. And so as they say, a star was born. 1979 saw a smiling
young genius becoming the first Spaniard to win the Open, with Jack Nicklaus
coming second in the race for the Claret Jug for a record seventh time
- Seve had arrived on the world scene.
1980's began with Seve Ballesteros becoming the first European to win
the Masters and at 23 years old, the then youngest champion. Nicklaus
however, continued his remarkable career with his fifth double-major year,
winning his fourth US Open and fifth PGA title. Seve won his second Masters
title in 1983 and the following season, he collected his second Open Championship
when finishing two strokes ahead of Bernhard Langer and Tom Watson, who
was attempting to equal Harry Vardon's record of six Open Championship
won his second US PGA Championship in 1984, made all the more special
by the fact that only eight years previously, he was seriously injured
having been struck by a lightning bolt. Germany's Bernhard Langer turned
the tables on Ballesteros in 1985, beating him in the Masters and gaining
revenge for his two-shot defeat in the Open the previous year. 1985 also
witnessed the first European success in the Ryder Cup and two years later
the US team tasted defeat again but this time on home soil. The Masters
of 1986 was perhaps the most thrilling of all. A fantastic late surge
from the Golden Bear saw him win his sixth Masters title at the age of
46 - his 21st major victory in an as of yet unparalleled career.
glory days of Scottish golf briefly returned in 1985 when Sandy Lyle triumphed
in the Open Championship at Royal St George's and the amiable Scot added
a further major title at the Masters in 1988. Though Ballesteros won his
third Open with a scintillating final round of 65, domination of the world
game by Nick Faldo had already begun when he won his first major title
at Muirfield in 1987, shooting par on every hole in his final round. Two
years later, Faldo shot an amazing closing 65 to force a Masters play
off with Scott Hoch, which he duly won on the second extra hole. Faldo's
best year came in 1990 when he became the only player since Nicklaus to
defend his Masters title. Just a few months later, Faldo played the most
devastating golf of his life in winning his second Open title at St Andrews
and he duly added his third Open two years later, again at Muirfield.
second Open success came at Royal St George's in 1993. His two-stroke
victory over Faldo prompted the late, great Gene Sarazen to comment that
this was the greatest championship of all time. Major champions have come
and gone over the years, with O' Meara, Olazabal, Stewart and Lawrie among
those whose names are now etched on the most prized possessions in golf.
until 1994, did a player with the potential to match the greatness of
past legends, come along. Speculation started when Tiger Woods won the
US Amateur Championship, continued when he retained it the following year,
grew when he became the youngest ever champion at the Masters and climaxed
as he stormed to six wins out of six starts in the 1999/2000 season. Though
Tiger may have a long way to go to be classed in the same league as Palmer
and Nicklaus, there are not many who would bet against it.